Section 2: Employment

This section presents statistics on monthly and annual employment participation and full-time, year-round (FTYR) employment in the United States. For both categories of employment, data are presented for people with disabilities, people without disabilities, and the difference in percentage employed (employment gap) between these two populations. There are three sources of data used in this section.

The first source of these data is the American Community Survey (U.S. Census Bureau). For these tables, statistics for people with disabilities (disability status or disability type) are based on having responded ‘yes’ to a series of questions within the American Community Survey. The definition for employment status in the American Community Survey can be found in the glossary.

Monthly time trends are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Data Retrieval System and are based on data from the Current Population Survey-Basic Monthly Survey. Annual time trends were produced by the authors using data from the Current Population Survey- Annual Social and Economic Supplement, which is fielded annually in March.  For these tables, similar to the American Community Survey, statistics for people with disabilities (disability status) are based on having responded ‘yes’ to a series of questions within the Current Population Survey, see the glossary for more details.  In addition, the definition for employment status in both Current Population Surveys can be found in the glossary.



Table 2.1: Employment -Civilians with Disabilities Ages 18-64 Years Living in the Community for the U.S.
Table 2.2: Employment -Civilians without Disabilities Ages 18-64 Years Living in the Community for the U.S.

In 2014, of the 20,460,136 individuals with disabilities ages 18 to 64 years living in the community, 7,030,317 individuals were employed—34.4 percent. In contrast, of the 175,077,077 individuals without disabilities ages 18 to 64 years living in the community, 131,940,323 individuals were employed—75.4 percent. The percentage of people with disabilities employed was highest in South Dakota (50.1 percent) and lowest in Puerto Rico (22.3 percent).


Table 2.3: Employment -Civilians with Hearing Disabilities Ages 18-64 Living in the Community for the U.S.

In 2014, of the 4,057,664 individuals with hearing disabilities ages 18 to 64 years
living in the community, 2,056,658 individuals were employed—50.7 percent. The percentage of people with hearing disabilities employed was highest in Wyoming (67.9 percent) and lowest in Puerto Rico (27.2 percent).


Table 2.4: Employment -Civilians with Vision Disabilities Ages 18-64 Living in the Community for the U.S.

In 2014, of the 3,802,921 individuals with vision disabilities ages 18 to 64 years
living in the community, 1,529,152 individuals were employed—40.2 percent. The percentage of people with vision disabilities employed was highest in Iowa (56.4 percent) and lowest in West Virginia (26.2 percent).


Table 2.5: Employment -Civilians with Cognitive Disabilities Ages 18-64 Years Living in the Community for the U.S.

In 2014, of the 8,669,210 individuals with cognitive disabilities ages 18 to 64 years living in the community, 2,097,518 individuals were employed— 24.2 percent. The percentage of people with cognitive disabilities employed was highest in North Dakota (42.6 percent) and lowest in Puerto Rico (13.9 percent).


Table 2.6: Employment -Civilians with Ambulatory Disabilities Ages 18-64 Years Living in the Community for the U.S.

In 2014, of the 10,225,155 individuals with ambulatory disabilities ages 18 to 64 years living in the community, 2,476,989 individuals were employed—24.2 percent. The percentage of people with ambulatory disabilities employed was highest in Nebraska (34.8 percent) and lowest in Kentucky (17.9 percent).


Table 2.7: Employment -Civilians with Self-Care Disabilities Ages 18-64 Years Living in the Community for the U.S.

In 2014, of the 3,645,109 individuals with self-care disabilities ages 18 to 64 years living in the community, 561,598 individuals were employed—15.4 percent. The percentage of people with ambulatory disabilities employed was highest in Wyoming (28.1 percent) and lowest in Mississippi (9.7 percent).


Table 2.8: Employment -Civilians with Independent Living Disabilities Ages 18-64 Years Living in the Community for the U.S.

In 2014, of the 7,224,420 individuals with independent living disabilities ages 18 to
64 years living in the community, 1,146,316 individuals were employed—15.9 percent. The percentage of people with independent living disabilities employed was highest in South Dakota (32.8 percent) and lowest in Puerto Rico (8.8 percent).


Table 2.9: Employment Gap - Civilians Ages 18-64 Years Living in the Community for the U.S.

In 2014, 34.4 percentage of people with disabilities ages 18 to 64 years living in the community were employed, while 75.4 percentage of people without disabilities ages 18 to 64 years living in the community were employed—a difference of 41.0 percentage points. The difference was greatest in Maine (47.4 percentage points) and smallest in Puerto Rico (30.1 percentage points).

Table 2.10: Change in Employment Gap - Civilians Ages 18-64 Years Living in the Community for the U.S., by Disability Status

In 2014, the difference in the percentage of people employed with and without disabilities ages 18 to 64 years living in the community was 41.0 percentage points, while the comparable measure was 40.3 percentage points in 2013, an increase of 0.7 percent.


Table 2.11: Full-Time, Year-Round (FTYR) - Civilians with Disabilities Ages 16-64 Years Living in the Community for the U.S.
Table 2.12: Full-Time, Year-Round - Civilians without Disabilities Ages 16-64 Years Living in the Community for the U.S.

In 2013, of the 21,632,455 individuals with disabilities ages 16 to 64 years living in the community, 4,308,543 individuals were employed full time, year-round—19.9 percent. In contrast, of the 184,539,554 individuals without disabilities ages 16 to 64 years living in the community, 93,484,780 individuals were employed full-time, year- round— 50.7 percent. The percentage of people with disabilities employed full-time, year-round was highest in North Dakota (34.8 percent) and lowest in Puerto Rico (13.3 percent).


Table 2.13: Full-Time, Year-Round Gap - Civilians Ages 16-64 Years Living in the Community for the U.S., by Disability Status

In 2013, 19.9 percent of people with disabilities ages 16 to 64 years living in the community were employed full-time, year-round, while 50.7 percent of people without disabilities ages 16 to 64 years living in the community were employed full-time, year-round—a difference of 30.7 percentage points. The difference in the percentage of full-time, year-round employment was greatest in District of Columbia (37.5 percentage points) and smallest in Puerto Rico (21.0 percentage points).


Table 2.14 Monthly Employment of Civilians Ages 16 to 64 Years by Disability Status: June 2011 through August 2015

In August 2015, of the 15,842,000 non-institutionalized civilians ages 16 to 64 years with disabilities, 4,267,000 were employed, an employment-to-population ratio of 26.9 percent. The employment-to- population ratio has slightly increased since June 2011, but is higher than its lowest value of 24.1 percent in January 2014. By comparison, in August 2015, of the 188,612,000 non-institutionalized civilians without disabilities, 136,550 were employed, for an employment-to-population ratio of 72.4 percent.


Table 2.15 Monthly Employment of Civilians Ages 65 Years and Over by Disability Status: June 2011 through August 2015

In August 2015, of the 14,016,000 non-institutionalized civilians ages 65 years and over with disabilities, 969,000 were employed, an employment-to-population ratio of 6.9 percent. The employment-to-population ratio has slightly increased since June 2011, but is higher than its lowest value of 6.1 percent in November 2013. By comparison, in August 2015, of the 32,626,000 non-institutionalized civilians without disabilities, 7,440,000 were employed, for an employment-to-population ratio of 22.8 percent.


Table 2.16 Monthly Labor Force Participation of Civilians Ages 16 to 64 Years by Disability Status: June 2011 through August 2015

In August 2015, of the 15,842,000 non-institutionalized civilians ages 16 to 64 years with disabilities, 4,808,000 participated in the labor force (by either working or looking for work), a labor force participation rate of 30.3 percent. This labor force participation rate has declined from a labor force participation rate of 32.8 in June 2011. In comparison, in August 2015, of the 188,612,000 non-institutionalized civilians without disabilities, 143,829,000 participated in the labor force, for a labor force participation rate of 76.3 percent.


Table 2.17 Monthly Labor Force Participation of Civilians Ages 65 Years and Over by Disability Status: June 2011 through August 2015

In August 2015, of the 14,016,000 non-institutionalized civilians ages 65 years and over with disabilities, 1,024,000 participated in the labor force (by either working or looking for work), a labor force participation rate of 7.3 percent. This labor force participation rate has increased from a labor force participation rate of 7.1 in June 2011. By comparison, in August 2015, of the 32,626,000 non-institutionalized civilians without disabilities, 7,727,000 participated in the labor force, for a labor force participation rate of 23.7 percent.


Table 2.18 Monthly Unemployment of Civilians Ages 16 to 64 Years by Disability Status: June 2011 through August 2015

In August 2015, of the 4,808,000 non-institutionalized civilians ages 16 to 64 with disabilities participating in the labor force, 541,000 were not working but actively looking for work, an unemployment rate of 11.3 percent. This is lower than the unemployment rate in June 2011 (18.6 percent), but higher than the lowest unemployment rate in June 2015 (10.1 percent). By comparison, in August 2015, of the 143,829,000 non-institutionalized civilians without disabilities participating in the labor force, 7,279,000 were not working but actively looking for work, an unemployment rate of 5.1 percent.


Table 2.19 Monthly Unemployment of Civilians Ages 65 years and Over by Disability Status: June 2011 through August 2015

In August 2015, of the 1,024,000 non-institutionalized civilians ages 65 and older with disabilities participating in the labor force, 55,000 were not working but actively looking for work, an unemployment rate of 5.4 percent. This is lower than the unemployment rate in June 2011 (7.8 percent), but higher than the lowest unemployment rate in May 2015 (4.1 percent). By comparison, in August 2015, of the 7,727,000 non-institutionalized civilians without disabilities participating in the labor force, 287,000 were not working but actively looking for work, an unemployment rate of 3.7 percent.


Table 2.20 Number of Civilians with Disabilities Ages 16 to 64 Years, by Definition of Disability, Disability Status, and Year, in March 1981 to 2015

In 2015, of the 204,086,000 non-institutionalized civilians ages 16 to 64 years, 8.9 percent (18,135,000) had a work limitation, 7.7 percent (15,747,000) had a broad disability and 12.2 percent (24,938,000) had a work limitation and/or a broad disability.


Table 2.21 Number of Civilians with Disabilities Ages 65 Years and Over, by Definition of Disability, Disability Status, and Year, in March 2000 to 2015


In 2015, of the 91,988,000 non-institutionalized civilians ages 65 years and over, 15.0 percent (13,819,000) had a work limitation, 29.8 percent (27,377,000) had a broad disability and 35.5 percent (32,642,000) had a work limitation and/or a broad disability.


Table 2.22 Labor Force Participation Rate among Civilians Ages 16 to 64 Years by Disability Status and Year, in March 1981 to 2015

In 2015, the labor force participation rate among non-institutionalized civilians ages 16 to 64 years was 22.7 percent for people with a work limitation and 77.1 percent for people without a work limitation. The labor force participation rate was 30.6 percent for people with a broad disability as compared to 75.7 percent for people without a broad disability. The labor force participation rate was 32.3 percent for people with a work limitation and/or broad disability as compared to 77.8 percent for people without a work limitation and/or broad disability.


Table 2.23 Labor Force Participation Rate among Civilians Ages 65 Years and Over by Disability Status and Year, in March 2000 to 2015


In 2015, the labor force participation rate among non-institutionalized civilians ages 65 years and over was 6.8 percent for people with a work limitation and 21.9 percent for people without a work limitation. The labor force participation rate was 7.1 percent for people with a broad disability as compared to 25.0 percent for people without a broad disability. The labor force participation rate was 7.9 percent for people with a work limitation and/or broad disability as compared to 26.1 percent for people without a work limitation and/or broad disability.


Table 2.24 Employment Rate among Civilians Ages 16 to 64 Years by Disability Status and Year, in March: 1981 to 2015

In 2015, the employment rate among non-institutionalized civilians ages 16 to 64 years was 19.7 percent for people with a work limitation and 72.8 percent for people without a work limitation. The employment rate was 26.9 percent for people with a broad disability as compared to 71.5 percent for people without a broad disability. The employment rate was 28.5 percent for people with a work limitation and/ or broad disability as compared to 73.6 percent for people without a work limitation and/or broad disability.


Table 2.25 Employment Rate among Civilians Ages 65 Years and Over by Disability Status and Year, in March, 2000 to 2015

In 2015, the employment rate among non-institutionalized civilians ages 65 years and over was 6.4 percent for people with a work limitation and 21.2 percent for people without a work limitation. The employment rate was 6.6 percent for people with a broad disability as compared to 24.2 percent for people without a broad disability. The employment rate was 7.5 percent for people with a work limitation and/ or broad disability as compared to 25.3 percent for people without a work limitation and/or broad disability.


Table 2.26 Labor Market Attachment Rate among Civilians Ages 16 to 64 Years by Disability Status and Year, 1981 to 2015

In 2015, the labor market attachment rate among non-institutionalized civilians ages 16 to 64 years was 25.2 percent for people with a work limitation and 76.9 percent for people without a work limitation. The labor market attachment rate was 32.8 percent for people with a broad disability as compared to 75.6 percent for people without a broad disability. The labor market attachment rate was 34.6 percent for people with a work limitation and/or broad disability as compared to 77.5 percent for people without a work limitation and/or broad disability.


Table 2.27 Labor Market Attachment Rate among Civilians Ages 65 Years and Over by Disability Status and Year, 2000 to 2015

In 2015, the labor market attachment rate among non-institutionalized civilians ages 65 years and over was 8.0 percent for people with a work limitation and 24.3 percent for people without a work limitation. The labor market attachment rate was 8.2 percent for people with a broad disability as compared to 27.6 percent for people without a broad disability. The labor market attachment rate was 9.2 percent for people with a work limitation and/or broad disability as compared to 28.8 percent for people without a work limitation and/or broad disability.


Table 2.28 Full-Time, Full-Year Rate Employment Rate among Civilians Ages 16 to 64 Years by Disability Status and Year, 1981 to 2015


In 2015, the full-time, full-year rate among non-institutionalized civilians ages 16 to 64 years was 8.6 percent for people with a work limitation and 54.4 percent for people without a work limitation. The full-time, full-year rate was 17.6 percent for people with a broad disability as compared to 53.1 percent for people without a broad disability. The full-time, full-year rate was 16.6 percent for people with a work limitation and/or broad disability as compared to 55.0 percent for people without a work limitation and/or broad disability.


Table 2.29 Full-Time, Full-Year Rate Employment Rate among Civilians Ages 65 Years and Over by Disability Status and Year, 2000 to 2015

In 2015, the full-time, full-year rate among non-institutionalized civilians ages 65 years and over was 1.8 percent for people with a work limitation and 13.0 percent for people without a work limitation. The full-time, full-year rate was 3.3 percent for people with a broad disability as compared to 14.8 percent for people without a broad disability. The full-time, full-year rate was 3.3 percent for people with a work limitation and/or broad disability as compared to 15.8 percent for people without a work limitation and/or broad disability.

 


Annual Disability Statistics Compendium

Funding for this project
is made possible by:

The StatsRRTC is funded by the Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Community Living, NIDILRR – Rehabilitation Research and Training Centers (RRTCs) Program under grant number 90RT5022-02-00, from 2013 - 2018.

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