2016 State Report for County-Level Data: Employment

Acknowledgements

Special thanks to the following individuals who have contributed to the success of this effort: Deb Brucker, Erin Dame, Adam Lavoie, Kate Filanoski, Karen Volle, and Anna Brennan-Curry.

Funding for this publication is made possible by:

The Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Disability Statistics and Demographics (StatsRRTC), funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Community Living National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR), grant number 90RTGE0001-01-00; and the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Employment Policy and Measurement (EPM-RRTC), also funded by NIDILRR, grant number 90RT5037-03-00. The information developed by the StatsRRTC and EPM-RRTC does not necessarily represent the policies of the Department of Health and Human Services, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government (Edgar, 75.620 (b)).

The StatsRRTC and EPM-RRTC are part of the Institute on Disability at the University of New Hampshire. The Institute on Disability/UCED (IOD) was established in 1987 to provide a university-based focus for the improvement of knowledge, policies, and practices related to the lives of people with disabilities and their families and is New Hampshire’s University Center for Excellence in Disability (UCED). Located within the University of New Hampshire, the IOD is a federally designated center authorized by the Developmental Disabilities Act. Through innovative and interdisciplinary research, academic, service, and dissemination initiatives, the IOD builds local, state, and national capacities to respond to the needs of individuals with disabilities and their families.

Institute on Disability / UCED

UNH.png

10 West Edge Drive, Suite 101 | Durham, NH 03284              603.862.4320 | relay: 711 | contact.iod@unh.edu | https://www.iod.unh.edu

Stay Connected:
facebook.png instragram.png linkedin.png Twitter.jpg youtube.png       

 

Copyright 2019. Institute on Disability. University of New Hampshire.      

 

 

 

2016 Michigan Report for County-Level Data: Employment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on

Disability Statistics and Demographics

A NIDILRR-Funded Center

NIDILIRR.jpg

Introduction

The State Reports for County-Level Data on Employment are designed to provide the users of disability statistics with the employed count and employment rate for civilians with disabilities, ages 18 to 64 years and living in the community, for any given state and county in the United States (U.S.). This report is intended to be an online complement to Section 2: Employment of the Annual Disability Statistics Compendium and Annual Disability Statistics Supplement, providing greater detail within each state. The State Reports for County-Level Data on Employment can be used to compare county-level statistics between counties in any given state or states. The following report provides county-level statistics for Michigan.

The proportion of the civilian non-institutionalized population with disabilities who are employed, sometimes called the employment rate or employment-to-population ratio, presented in the State Reports for County-Level Data is a useful tool for advocates, researchers, and policy-makers to plan and provide services and supports for the employment of people with disabilities. In this report, the employment of people with disabilities is presented as the number of employed civilians with disabilities, ages 18 to 64 years and living in the community, in a given state and county per total state and county populations, respectively. Counts and percentages (the employment rate) are provided in tables and maps.

The data for this report come from the American Community Survey 5-year data. The American Community Survey (ACS) is a national survey developed by the U.S. Census Bureau to provide information on a number of topics about social, economic, and demographic characteristics of the U.S. population. ACS 5-year data is collected over a longer period of time than 1-year data, providing larger sample sizes and increased reliability for less populated areas and small population subgroups. All of the statistics in this report use the ACS 5-year data which includes data from 2016, the year of the report, and data from the four previous years. In the ACS, people are identified as having a disability based on responses to a series of six questions asking about having difficulties with vision, hearing, ambulation, cognition, self-care, and independent living (see glossary for further details). 

 

 

 

In the ACS, people are also asked a series of questions designed to identify their employment status. Based on the answers, individuals were classified into one of five groups:

  • People who worked at any time during the reference week;
  • People on temporary layoff who were available for work;
  • People who did not work during the reference week but who had jobs or businesses from which they were temporarily absent (excluding layoff);
  • People who did not work during the reference week, but who were looking for work during the last four weeks and were available for work during the reference week; and
  • People not in the labor force. 

In the ACS, people are identified as being employed if they responded as having worked during the past week. 

Specific to Michigan, the state chosen for this report, sentences providing interpretation and context for employment statistics are included on the following page. A short glossary of terms is also provided at the end of the report explaining the statistics that are illustrated in each sentence.

Additional Resources. The Annual Disability Statistics Compendium and its complement, the Annual Disability Statistics Supplement, are summaries of statistics about people with disabilities, available both in hard copy and online at https://www.disabilitycompendium.org

Help navigating any of the resources described here can be found in the Frequently Asked Questions section at https://www.disabilitycompendium.org/faq. Assistance interpreting and locating additional statistics is available via our toll-free number, 866.538.9521, or by email, disability.statistics@unh.edu. For more information about our research projects, please visit https://www.researchondisability.org.

Suggested Citation. Boege, S.L., Lauer, E.A., & Houtenville, A.J., 2019. 2016 State Report for Michigan County-Level Data: Employment. Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire, Institute on Disability.

Interpretation

The following statements are designed to help understand the 2016 county-level employment statistics from Michigan that are presented:

 

  • For people with disabilities: 
    • The employment rate for people with disabilities in Michigan was 30.5%.
    • The range, also known as the difference between largest and smallest values, of employment rates for people with disabilities across Michigan counties was 28.5%.
      • The county with the greatest employment rate for people with disabilities was Ottawa (44.1%).
      • The county with the smallest employment rate for people with disabilities was Montmorency (15.6%).
    • The median, also known as the middle-most, employment rate for people with disabilities across all counties in Michigan was 29.5%.

 

  • For people without disabilities:
    • The employment rate for people without disabilities in Michigan was 74.4%.
    • The range, also known as the difference between largest and smallest values, of employment rates for people without disabilities across Michigan counties was 23.1%.
      • The county with the greatest employment rate for people without disabilities was Grand Traverse (81.3%).
      • The county with the smallest employment rate for people without disabilities was Lake (58.2%).
    • The median, also known as the middle-most, employment rate for people without disabilities across all counties in Michigan was 73.0%.
Employment of Civilians with and without Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community for Michigan, by County: 2016
County Disability No Disability   County Disability No Disability
Total Employed % [1] Total Employed % [2] Total Employed % [1] Total Employed % [2]
   Michigan    750,896 228,652 30.5 5,334,309 3,966,948 74.4    Gladwin       2,699     469 17.4    11,317     7,630 67.4
    Alcona       1,065     209 19.6     4,371     2,746 62.8    Gogebic       1,099     244 22.2     7,250     5,085 70.1
    Alger          756     211 27.9     4,091     2,784 68.1 Grand Traverse   6,354   2,339 36.8    48,507    39,454 81.3
   Allegan       6,352   1,935 30.5    61,527    47,612 77.4    Gratiot       2,896     843 29.1    19,716    13,998 71.0
    Alpena       2,607     728 27.9    14,265    10,792 75.7   Hillsdale      3,487     985 28.2    24,003    16,904 70.4
    Antrim       1,679     608 36.2    11,157     8,233 73.8    Houghton      2,113     756 35.8    21,081    13,289 63.0
    Arenac       1,656     403 24.3     7,321     4,938 67.4     Huron        2,295     828 36.1    15,862    12,128 76.5
    Baraga         491     119 24.2     2,974     2,093 70.4     Ingham      20,107   7,577 37.7   172,086   121,299 70.5
    Barry        4,027   1,335 33.2    31,426    24,651 78.4     Ionia        5,077   1,520 29.9    32,237    24,322 75.4
     Bay         9,545   2,188 22.9    54,487    41,656 76.5     Iosco        2,545     630 24.8    11,359     7,555 66.5
    Benzie       1,285     411 32.0     8,559     6,629 77.5      Iron        1,038     243 23.4     5,213     3,707 71.1
   Berrien      11,296   3,590 31.8    80,837    60,757 75.2    Isabella      5,093   2,056 40.4    45,160    30,259 67.0
    Branch       2,995     910 30.4    21,417    16,621 77.6    Jackson      12,659   3,593 28.4    79,134    58,887 74.4
   Calhoun      11,453   3,116 27.2    69,059    51,530 74.6   Kalamazoo     18,307   6,799 37.1   147,405   113,062 76.7
     Cass        4,478   1,473 32.9    26,225    19,520 74.4    Kalkaska      1,895     572 30.2     8,327     5,813 69.8
  Charlevoix     1,789     652 36.4    13,341    10,226 76.7      Kent       40,849  14,366 35.2   352,049   282,138 80.1
  Cheboygan      2,521     657 26.1    12,003     8,611 71.7    Keweenaw        156      64 41.0       984       701 71.2
   Chippewa      3,132   1,198 38.3    18,017    13,131 72.9      Lake        1,451     277 19.1     4,749     2,763 58.2
    Clare        3,708     802 21.6    13,883     9,226 66.5     Lapeer       6,788   1,978 29.1    46,884    33,865 72.2
   Clinton       4,421   1,575 35.6    42,749    33,042 77.3    Leelanau        887     326 36.8    11,045     8,223 74.4
   Crawford      1,451     312 21.5     6,459     4,509 69.8    Lenawee       7,698   2,876 37.4    50,424    37,967 75.3
    Delta        3,032     882 29.1    18,156    13,941 76.8   Livingston     9,562   3,712 38.8   105,636    83,522 79.1
  Dickinson      2,189     631 28.8    12,986     9,790 75.4      Luce          694     243 35.0     2,445     1,627 66.5
    Eaton        8,944   3,363 37.6    57,824    46,067 79.7    Mackinac        943     273 29.0     5,362     3,868 72.1
    Emmet        2,396     900 37.6    17,240    13,675 79.3     Macomb      60,123  18,913 31.5   473,794   368,638 77.8
   Genesee      38,350   8,955 23.4   211,906   146,252 69.0    Manistee      2,044     588 28.8    11,178     7,754 69.4
Employment of Civilians with and without Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community for Michigan, by County: 2016
County Disability No Disability   County Disability No Disability
Total Employed % [1] Total Employed % [2] Total Employed % [1] Total Employed % [2]
  Marquette      5,170   1,652 32.0    37,451    26,744 71.4   St. Joseph     4,506   1,686 37.4    30,865    23,526 76.2
    Mason        2,458     865 35.2    14,155    10,671 75.4    Tuscola       5,346   1,494 27.9    26,904    20,116 74.8
   Mecosta       3,828   1,242 32.4    23,868    15,677 65.7   Van Buren      6,141   2,017 32.8    38,681    28,351 73.3
  Menominee      2,239     782 34.9    11,607     8,922 76.9   Washtenaw     16,175   5,923 36.6   224,940   164,095 73.0
   Midland       5,334   1,708 32.0    45,965    34,250 74.5     Wayne      165,663  40,384 24.4   924,974   635,381 68.7
  Missaukee      1,496     491 32.8     7,135     5,272 73.9    Wexford       2,804     758 27.0    16,421    11,898 72.5
    Monroe      10,227   2,967 29.0    82,066    61,975 75.5                                                             
   Montcalm      6,034   1,553 25.7    30,165    22,340 74.1                                                             
 Montmorency     1,170     182 15.6     3,961     2,459 62.1                                                             
   Muskegon     14,808   3,956 26.7    86,351    63,523 73.6                                                             
   Newaygo       4,874   1,197 24.6    23,159    16,609 71.7                                                             
   Oakland      72,043  28,342 39.3   701,849   549,974 78.4                                                             
    Oceana       2,568     758 29.5    12,385     8,757 70.7                                                             
    Ogemaw       2,412     576 23.9     9,494     6,483 68.3                                                             
  Ontonagon        522     100 19.2     2,858     1,712 59.9                                                             
   Osceola       2,138     466 21.8    11,134     7,692 69.1                                                             
    Oscoda         947     226 23.9     3,635     2,311 63.6                                                             
    Otsego       1,952     764 39.1    12,231     9,494 77.6                                                             
    Ottawa      14,183   6,260 44.1   156,664   124,961 79.8                                                             
 Presque Isle    1,053     223 21.2     5,971     3,904 65.4                                                             
  Roscommon      3,276     750 22.9     9,785     6,292 64.3                                                             
   Saginaw      16,480   3,789 23.0   100,167    73,140 73.0                                                             
   Sanilac       3,409   1,015 29.8    20,751    15,087 72.7                                                             
 Schoolcraft       911     184 20.2     3,741     2,397 64.1                                                             
  Shiawassee     5,592   1,439 25.7    36,424    27,034 74.2                                                             
  St. Clair     14,660   4,670 31.9    83,065    62,411 75.1                                                             
Count of Employed Civilians with Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community for Michigan, by County: 2016

Employment Rate for Civilians with Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community for Michigan, by County: 2016

Discussion

There are a number of concepts and factors which complicate the interpretation of the estimates presented in this report. These concerns affect all statistics from population-based surveys. The estimates included in this document should be interpreted the following limitations in mind and generalized with caution. In each point, a link to the U.S. Census Bureau website describing the limitation or concept in greater detail in the ACS has been provided.

Additional links to resources for the ACS:

Glossary

American Community Survey (ACS) — The American Community Survey is a large, continuous demographic survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau that will provide accurate and up-to-date profiles of America’s communities every year. Annual and multiyear estimates of population and housing data are generated for small areas, including tracts and population subgroups. This information is collected by mailing questionnaires to a sample of addresses. See the U.S. Census Bureau website for additional details.

The Six Disability Questions in the American Community Survey:

  1. Is this person deaf or does he/she have serious difficulty hearing? (yes or no)
  2. Is this person blind or does he/she have serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses? (yes or no)
  3. (If person 5 years old or over) Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions? (yes or no)
  4. (If person 5 years or old over) Does this person have serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs? (yes or no)
  5. (If person 5 years old or over) Does this person have difficulty dressing or bathing? (yes or no)
  6. (If person 15 years old or over) Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor’s office or shopping? (yes or no)

Average — The sum of all of the values in a sample divided by the number of values in the sample.

Civilian — A person not in active-duty military.

Employed – Individuals were asked a series of questions designed to identify their employment status. Based on the answers, individuals were classified into one of five groups: (1) people who worked at any time during the reference week; (2) people on temporary layoff who were available for work; (3) people who did not work during the reference week but who had jobs or businesses from which they were temporarily absent (excluding layoff); (4) people who did not work during the reference week, but who were looking for work during the last four weeks and were available for work during the reference week; and (5) people not in the labor force. People who responded as having worked during the past week were considered "employed".

Employment Rate — The number of individuals that are employed as a percent of the civilian non-institutional population.

Living in the Community – A person lives in the community, if the person is not living in an institution, such as jail, prison, nursing home, and hospital. A college dormitory is not considered an institution.

Median — The middle-most value of a sample that separates the upper half of the values from the lower half of the values. 

Non-Institutionalized Population — Describes individuals who are residing in the community and who are not living in institutions such as jails, prisons, nursing homes, hospitals, etc.

Population — The total number of inhabitants in a defined geographic area including all races, classes, and groups.

Range — The difference between the largest and smallest values in a sample. In a sample, when the smallest value is subtracted from the largest value the resulting value is called the range. 

Sampling Variability — The variation of a statistic when estimated from repeated samples.

United States Census Bureau — An agency within the United States Federal Statistical System tasked with producing data about the American people and economy. Their primary task is to conduct the United States Census every ten years.

About the Center

Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Disability Statistics and Demographics (StatsRRTC)

Led by the University of New Hampshire, the StatsRRTC is a collaborative effort involving the following partners: American Association of People with Disabilities, Center for Essential Management Services, Council of State Administrators of Vocational Rehabilitation, Kessler Foundation, Mathematica Policy Research, and Public Health Institute.

The StatsRRTC is funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Community Living, National Institute on Disability, Independent Living and Rehabilitation Research under grant number 90RTGE00010100, from 2018–2023.

Employment Policy and Measurement Rehabilitation Research and Training Center (EPM-RRTC)

Led by the University of New Hampshire, the EPM-RRTC is a collaborative effort involving the following partners: Association of University Centers on Disability, Hunter College, Kessler Foundation, Mathematica Policy Research, and the University of Chicago.

The EPM-RRTC is funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Community Living, National Institute on Disability, Independent Living and Rehabilitation Research under grant number 90RT503701, from 2015–2020.

Contact Information
University of New Hampshire, Institute on Disability
10 West Edge Drive, Suite 101
Durham, NH 03824
Toll-Free Telephone/TTY: 866-538-9521
E-mail: Disability.Statistics@unh.edu
https://www.researchondisability.org