2016 State Report for County-Level Data: Employment

Acknowledgements

Special thanks to the following individuals who have contributed to the success of this effort: Deb Brucker, Erin Dame, Adam Lavoie, Kate Filanoski, Karen Volle, and Anna Brennan-Curry.

Funding for this publication is made possible by:

The Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Disability Statistics and Demographics (StatsRRTC), funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Community Living National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR), grant number 90RTGE0001-01-00; and the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Employment Policy and Measurement (EPM-RRTC), also funded by NIDILRR, grant number 90RT5037-03-00. The information developed by the StatsRRTC and EPM-RRTC does not necessarily represent the policies of the Department of Health and Human Services, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government (Edgar, 75.620 (b)).

The StatsRRTC and EPM-RRTC are part of the Institute on Disability at the University of New Hampshire. The Institute on Disability/UCED (IOD) was established in 1987 to provide a university-based focus for the improvement of knowledge, policies, and practices related to the lives of people with disabilities and their families and is New Hampshire’s University Center for Excellence in Disability (UCED). Located within the University of New Hampshire, the IOD is a federally designated center authorized by the Developmental Disabilities Act. Through innovative and interdisciplinary research, academic, service, and dissemination initiatives, the IOD builds local, state, and national capacities to respond to the needs of individuals with disabilities and their families.

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2016 Virginia Report for County-Level Data: Employment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on

Disability Statistics and Demographics

A NIDILRR-Funded Center

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Introduction

The State Reports for County-Level Data on Employment are designed to provide the users of disability statistics with the employed count and employment rate for civilians with disabilities, ages 18 to 64 years and living in the community, for any given state and county in the United States (U.S.). This report is intended to be an online complement to Section 2: Employment of the Annual Disability Statistics Compendium and Annual Disability Statistics Supplement, providing greater detail within each state. The State Reports for County-Level Data on Employment can be used to compare county-level statistics between counties in any given state or states. The following report provides county-level statistics for Virginia.

The proportion of the civilian non-institutionalized population with disabilities who are employed, sometimes called the employment rate or employment-to-population ratio, presented in the State Reports for County-Level Data is a useful tool for advocates, researchers, and policy-makers to plan and provide services and supports for the employment of people with disabilities. In this report, the employment of people with disabilities is presented as the number of employed civilians with disabilities, ages 18 to 64 years and living in the community, in a given state and county per total state and county populations, respectively. Counts and percentages (the employment rate) are provided in tables and maps.

The data for this report come from the American Community Survey 5-year data. The American Community Survey (ACS) is a national survey developed by the U.S. Census Bureau to provide information on a number of topics about social, economic, and demographic characteristics of the U.S. population. ACS 5-year data is collected over a longer period of time than 1-year data, providing larger sample sizes and increased reliability for less populated areas and small population subgroups. All of the statistics in this report use the ACS 5-year data which includes data from 2016, the year of the report, and data from the four previous years. In the ACS, people are identified as having a disability based on responses to a series of six questions asking about having difficulties with vision, hearing, ambulation, cognition, self-care, and independent living (see glossary for further details). 

 

 

 

In the ACS, people are also asked a series of questions designed to identify their employment status. Based on the answers, individuals were classified into one of five groups:

  • People who worked at any time during the reference week;
  • People on temporary layoff who were available for work;
  • People who did not work during the reference week but who had jobs or businesses from which they were temporarily absent (excluding layoff);
  • People who did not work during the reference week, but who were looking for work during the last four weeks and were available for work during the reference week; and
  • People not in the labor force. 

In the ACS, people are identified as being employed if they responded as having worked during the past week. 

Specific to Virginia, the state chosen for this report, sentences providing interpretation and context for employment statistics are included on the following page. A short glossary of terms is also provided at the end of the report explaining the statistics that are illustrated in each sentence.

Additional Resources. The Annual Disability Statistics Compendium and its complement, the Annual Disability Statistics Supplement, are summaries of statistics about people with disabilities, available both in hard copy and online at https://www.disabilitycompendium.org

Help navigating any of the resources described here can be found in the Frequently Asked Questions section at https://www.disabilitycompendium.org/faq. Assistance interpreting and locating additional statistics is available via our toll-free number, 866.538.9521, or by email, disability.statistics@unh.edu. For more information about our research projects, please visit https://www.researchondisability.org.

Suggested Citation. Boege, S.L., Lauer, E.A., & Houtenville, A.J., 2019. 2016 State Report for Virginia County-Level Data: Employment. Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire, Institute on Disability.

Interpretation

The following statements are designed to help understand the 2016 county-level employment statistics from Virginia that are presented:

 

  • For people with disabilities: 
    • The employment rate for people with disabilities in Virginia was 37.7%.
    • The range, also known as the difference between largest and smallest values, of employment rates for people with disabilities across Virginia counties was 47.6%.
      • The county with the greatest employment rate for people with disabilities was Poquoson (59.4%).
      • The county with the smallest employment rate for people with disabilities was Buchanan (11.8%).
    • The median, also known as the middle-most, employment rate for people with disabilities across all counties in Virginia was 34.4%.

 

  • For people without disabilities:
    • The employment rate for people without disabilities in Virginia was 77.6%.
    • The range, also known as the difference between largest and smallest values, of employment rates for people without disabilities across Virginia counties was 36.9%.
      • The county with the greatest employment rate for people without disabilities was Alexandria (85.3%).
      • The county with the smallest employment rate for people without disabilities was Lexington (48.4%).
    • The median, also known as the middle-most, employment rate for people without disabilities across all counties in Virginia was 76.4%.
Employment of Civilians with and without Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community for Virginia, by County: 2016
County Disability No Disability   County Disability No Disability
Total Employed % [1] Total Employed % [2] Total Employed % [1] Total Employed % [2]
    Virginia     472,291 177,977 37.7 4,643,217 3,605,314 77.6   Chesterfield    17,817   7,060 39.6   188,355   150,211 79.7
    Accomack       1,793     566 31.6    17,184    12,475 72.6      Clarke          775     446 57.5     7,698     5,987 77.8
   Albemarle       4,069   1,748 43.0    60,475    44,098 72.9 Colonial Heights   1,140     336 29.5     8,841     6,948 78.6
   Alexandria      5,661   2,932 51.8   100,783    85,933 85.3    Covington         622     277 44.5     2,583     1,817 70.3
   Alleghany       1,468     394 26.8     7,466     5,547 74.3      Craig           621     119 19.2     2,478     1,816 73.3
     Amelia          972     369 38.0     6,768     5,262 77.7     Culpeper       2,865   1,088 38.0    25,571    20,185 78.9
    Amherst        2,478     731 29.5    16,969    12,772 75.3    Cumberland        824     286 34.7     4,993     3,896 78.0
   Appomattox      1,309     285 21.8     7,740     5,938 76.7     Danville       4,353   1,168 26.8    19,853    14,355 72.3
   Arlington       6,175   3,227 52.3   156,945   132,711 84.6    Dickenson       2,129     278 13.1     6,865     4,477 65.2
    Augusta        5,380   2,057 38.2    36,994    29,362 79.4    Dinwiddie       2,484     978 39.4    14,952    11,136 74.5
      Bath           355     146 41.1     2,358     1,948 82.6     Emporia          636     140 22.0     2,572     1,647 64.0
    Bedford        5,437   1,741 32.0    40,369    31,946 79.1      Essex           624     203 32.5     5,965     4,712 79.0
     Bland           385      64 16.6     3,021     2,238 74.1     Fairfax          784     350 44.6    14,154    11,404 80.6
   Botetourt       2,179     860 39.5    17,488    13,978 79.9     Fairfax       34,787  18,909 54.4   684,080   548,924 80.2
    Bristol        1,911     549 28.7     8,224     6,368 77.4   Falls Church       291     109 37.5     8,190     6,972 85.1
   Brunswick       1,462     452 30.9     7,421     5,482 73.9     Fauquier       3,420   1,685 49.3    37,818    30,346 80.2
    Buchanan       2,765     327 11.8    11,068     6,070 54.8      Floyd         1,077     259 24.0     8,105     6,280 77.5
   Buckingham      1,225     295 24.1     7,823     5,873 75.1     Fluvanna       1,503     629 41.8    13,043    10,402 79.8
  Buena Vista        507     198 39.1     3,609     2,574 71.3     Franklin         379     121 31.9     4,440     3,160 71.2
    Campbell       3,814   1,415 37.1    29,597    23,360 78.9     Franklin       4,427   1,563 35.3    28,989    21,657 74.7
    Caroline       1,743     621 35.6    14,661    11,589 79.0    Frederick       4,794   2,472 51.6    44,846    36,803 82.1
    Carroll        2,877     561 19.5    14,611    11,161 76.4  Fredericksburg    1,539     467 30.3    17,478    12,825 73.4
  Charles City       610     154 25.2     3,804     2,895 76.1      Galax           745     177 23.8     3,082     2,387 77.4
   Charlotte       1,247     302 24.2     5,756     4,269 74.2      Giles         1,758     495 28.2     8,203     6,403 78.1
Charlottesville    2,618   1,074 41.0    31,330    21,995 70.2    Gloucester      2,612     934 35.8    19,962    15,684 78.6
   Chesapeake     11,750   4,684 39.9   124,794    97,276 77.9    Goochland       1,240     586 47.3    11,099     8,484 76.4
Employment of Civilians with and without Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community for Virginia, by County: 2016
County Disability No Disability   County Disability No Disability
Total Employed % [1] Total Employed % [2] Total Employed % [1] Total Employed % [2]
    Grayson        1,304     278 21.3     7,300     5,443 74.6   Martinsville     1,366     339 24.8     6,152     4,442 72.2
     Greene        1,457     502 34.5     9,999     7,635 76.4     Mathews          547     253 46.3     4,205     3,397 80.8
  Greensville        751     283 37.7     4,298     3,406 79.2   Mecklenburg      3,017     842 27.9    14,001    10,621 75.9
    Halifax        3,038     770 25.3    16,739    12,439 74.3    Middlesex         747     339 45.4     4,948     3,617 73.1
    Hampton        9,609   3,676 38.3    73,618    54,142 73.5    Montgomery      5,423   1,966 36.3    65,137    42,288 64.9
    Hanover        4,601   1,854 40.3    57,976    48,061 82.9      Nelson          995     238 23.9     7,439     5,818 78.2
  Harrisonburg     2,055     969 47.2    37,067    23,024 62.1     New Kent       1,018     335 32.9    11,248     9,086 80.8
    Henrico       16,594   6,740 40.6   184,398   149,753 81.2   Newport News    12,557   5,358 42.7    96,456    72,624 75.3
     Henry         5,479   1,075 19.6    24,549    17,882 72.8     Norfolk       15,425   4,486 29.1   130,111    93,010 71.5
    Highland         164      59 36.0       953       773 81.1   Northampton        607     176 29.0     5,885     4,131 70.2
    Hopewell       2,179     553 25.4    10,776     8,183 75.9  Northumberland      606     160 26.4     5,568     4,017 72.1
 Isle of Wight     2,015     853 42.3    19,835    15,469 78.0      Norton          457      58 12.7     2,070     1,549 74.8
   James City      3,375   1,397 41.4    35,950    27,526 76.6     Nottoway       1,410     230 16.3     7,133     5,029 70.5
  King George      1,654     773 46.7    13,759    10,912 79.3      Orange        2,305     794 34.4    17,602    13,749 78.1
  King William       795     316 39.7     9,212     7,355 79.8       Page         2,137     500 23.4    11,926     9,130 76.6
 King and Queen      353     134 38.0     3,918     2,882 73.6     Patrick        1,682     454 27.0     8,768     6,357 72.5
   Lancaster         496     111 22.4     4,912     3,839 78.2    Petersburg      3,814     870 22.8    16,020    11,329 70.7
      Lee          3,647     589 16.2    10,504     6,778 64.5   Pittsylvania     5,368   1,622 30.2    31,443    23,760 75.6
   Lexington         285      86 30.2     3,774     1,826 48.4     Poquoson         468     278 59.4     6,558     5,381 82.1
    Loudoun        9,463   5,247 55.4   215,796   178,735 82.8    Portsmouth      6,634   2,338 35.2    50,133    37,339 74.5
     Louisa        2,730     770 28.2    18,465    14,003 75.8     Powhatan       1,166     363 31.1    14,670    11,848 80.8
   Lunenburg       1,243     359 28.9     5,471     3,787 69.2  Prince Edward     1,538     349 22.7    13,750     8,154 59.3
   Lynchburg       5,651   1,939 34.3    46,250    31,204 67.5  Prince George     2,532     843 33.3    17,350    12,664 73.0
    Madison          825     302 36.6     6,809     5,303 77.9  Prince William   17,135   8,611 50.3   257,793   207,036 80.3
    Manassas       1,767     900 50.9    24,937    19,855 79.6     Pulaski        2,890     760 26.3    17,195    13,482 78.4
 Manassas Park       784     402 51.3     9,640     7,454 77.3     Radford        1,436     411 28.6    12,359     6,420 51.9
Employment of Civilians with and without Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community for Virginia, by County: 2016
County Disability No Disability   County Disability No Disability
Total Employed % [1] Total Employed % [2] Total Employed % [1] Total Employed % [2]
  Rappahannock       335     155 46.3     3,964     2,962 74.7    Winchester      2,405   1,052 43.7    14,544    10,926 75.1
    Richmond         285     100 35.1     3,641     2,793 76.7       Wise         5,672   1,179 20.8    18,094    11,701 64.7
    Richmond      20,877   7,241 34.7   129,543    95,138 73.4      Wythe         2,805     861 30.7    14,699    10,973 74.7
    Roanoke        4,849   1,742 35.9    50,175    39,966 79.7       York         3,235   1,638 50.6    34,461    26,329 76.4
    Roanoke        9,375   2,910 31.0    52,558    41,274 78.5                                                               
   Rockbridge      1,523     492 32.3    11,407     8,506 74.6                                                               
   Rockingham      4,786   1,849 38.6    41,753    33,006 79.1                                                               
    Russell        3,324     541 16.3    13,735     9,246 67.3                                                               
     Salem         1,619     646 39.9    13,919    10,726 77.1                                                               
     Scott         2,722     550 20.2    10,113     7,219 71.4                                                               
   Shenandoah      2,691     993 36.9    22,589    17,839 79.0                                                               
     Smyth         3,636     862 23.7    14,998    11,123 74.2                                                               
  Southampton      1,361     355 26.1     8,892     6,800 76.5                                                               
  Spotsylvania     7,360   3,087 41.9    72,276    57,077 79.0                                                               
    Stafford       6,205   3,031 48.8    77,299    59,621 77.1                                                               
    Staunton       1,715     784 45.7    12,625     9,731 77.1                                                               
    Suffolk        5,140   1,762 34.3    46,698    35,930 76.9                                                               
     Surry           500     167 33.4     3,695     2,749 74.4                                                               
     Sussex          632     201 31.8     3,343     2,425 72.5                                                               
    Tazewell       5,332   1,416 26.6    20,243    13,809 68.2                                                               
 Virginia Beach   22,332   9,542 42.7   244,924   194,255 79.3                                                               
     Warren        2,981   1,167 39.1    21,158    16,232 76.7                                                               
   Washington      5,039   1,577 31.3    27,518    20,630 75.0                                                               
   Waynesboro      1,561     599 38.4    10,948     8,496 77.6                                                               
  Westmoreland     1,239     448 36.2     8,826     6,490 73.5                                                               
  Williamsburg       725     233 32.1    10,281     5,357 52.1                                                               
Count of Employed Civilians with Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community for Virginia, by County: 2016

Employment Rate for Civilians with Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community for Virginia, by County: 2016

Discussion

There are a number of concepts and factors which complicate the interpretation of the estimates presented in this report. These concerns affect all statistics from population-based surveys. The estimates included in this document should be interpreted the following limitations in mind and generalized with caution. In each point, a link to the U.S. Census Bureau website describing the limitation or concept in greater detail in the ACS has been provided.

Additional links to resources for the ACS:

Glossary

American Community Survey (ACS) — The American Community Survey is a large, continuous demographic survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau that will provide accurate and up-to-date profiles of America’s communities every year. Annual and multiyear estimates of population and housing data are generated for small areas, including tracts and population subgroups. This information is collected by mailing questionnaires to a sample of addresses. See the U.S. Census Bureau website for additional details.

The Six Disability Questions in the American Community Survey:

  1. Is this person deaf or does he/she have serious difficulty hearing? (yes or no)
  2. Is this person blind or does he/she have serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses? (yes or no)
  3. (If person 5 years old or over) Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions? (yes or no)
  4. (If person 5 years or old over) Does this person have serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs? (yes or no)
  5. (If person 5 years old or over) Does this person have difficulty dressing or bathing? (yes or no)
  6. (If person 15 years old or over) Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor’s office or shopping? (yes or no)

Average — The sum of all of the values in a sample divided by the number of values in the sample.

Civilian — A person not in active-duty military.

Employed – Individuals were asked a series of questions designed to identify their employment status. Based on the answers, individuals were classified into one of five groups: (1) people who worked at any time during the reference week; (2) people on temporary layoff who were available for work; (3) people who did not work during the reference week but who had jobs or businesses from which they were temporarily absent (excluding layoff); (4) people who did not work during the reference week, but who were looking for work during the last four weeks and were available for work during the reference week; and (5) people not in the labor force. People who responded as having worked during the past week were considered "employed".

Employment Rate — The number of individuals that are employed as a percent of the civilian non-institutional population.

Living in the Community – A person lives in the community, if the person is not living in an institution, such as jail, prison, nursing home, and hospital. A college dormitory is not considered an institution.

Median — The middle-most value of a sample that separates the upper half of the values from the lower half of the values. 

Non-Institutionalized Population — Describes individuals who are residing in the community and who are not living in institutions such as jails, prisons, nursing homes, hospitals, etc.

Population — The total number of inhabitants in a defined geographic area including all races, classes, and groups.

Range — The difference between the largest and smallest values in a sample. In a sample, when the smallest value is subtracted from the largest value the resulting value is called the range. 

Sampling Variability — The variation of a statistic when estimated from repeated samples.

United States Census Bureau — An agency within the United States Federal Statistical System tasked with producing data about the American people and economy. Their primary task is to conduct the United States Census every ten years.

About the Center

Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Disability Statistics and Demographics (StatsRRTC)

Led by the University of New Hampshire, the StatsRRTC is a collaborative effort involving the following partners: American Association of People with Disabilities, Center for Essential Management Services, Council of State Administrators of Vocational Rehabilitation, Kessler Foundation, Mathematica Policy Research, and Public Health Institute.

The StatsRRTC is funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Community Living, National Institute on Disability, Independent Living and Rehabilitation Research under grant number 90RTGE00010100, from 2018–2023.

Employment Policy and Measurement Rehabilitation Research and Training Center (EPM-RRTC)

Led by the University of New Hampshire, the EPM-RRTC is a collaborative effort involving the following partners: Association of University Centers on Disability, Hunter College, Kessler Foundation, Mathematica Policy Research, and the University of Chicago.

The EPM-RRTC is funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Community Living, National Institute on Disability, Independent Living and Rehabilitation Research under grant number 90RT503701, from 2015–2020.

Contact Information
University of New Hampshire, Institute on Disability
10 West Edge Drive, Suite 101
Durham, NH 03824
Toll-Free Telephone/TTY: 866-538-9521
E-mail: Disability.Statistics@unh.edu
https://www.researchondisability.org